By Florence Chaverneff
On the eve of receiving the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2013, Randy Schekman shook the scientific world in an altogether different manner when he announced in the Guardian newspaper he and his group would boycott the three leading scientific journals. These bastions of scientific publishing have long been held on a pedestal by the research community the world over and regarded as depositories of excellence in science. Their reputation is tightly associated with high ‘impact factors’, a parameter determined by article citations, and which Schekman judges to be a “gimmick” and a “deeply flawed measure, pursuing which has become an end in itself – and is damaging to science”. Yet, career advancement in academic research is heavily – if not exclusively– reliant on individuals getting their work published in these high impact scientific journals, which Schekman calls “luxury journals”, comparing them to bonuses common on Wall Street, and from which “science must break [away] “. He deems that “the result [of such a change] will be better research that better serves science and society”. The Nobel Prize awardee touts the open access model for scientific publishing, presenting it as all-around anti-elitist, which…it is.
In 2001, the Budapest Open Access Initiative defined open access for peer-reviewed journal articles by its “free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself”.
This is how open access makes for a more level playing field: by allowing immediate dissemination of scientific findings without restrictions, and by accepting articles without highly demanding criteria, while maintaining sound peer-review practices. This comes in sharp contrast to the 300 year old model of subscription-based scientific publishing, accepting limited numbers of articles in each issue, and requiring exceedingly demanding standards for acceptance. This results in significant publication delays and considerable time effort spent polishing articles for publication. Time which could be spent… doing research.
While many in the community will agree on the benefits granted by this still recent and evolving model of science publishing, open access journals, being less established than older household names, and lacking in their majority an impact factor, may not appear as prime choice for researchers. The question then can be posed: what would it take to bring about a shift in attitudes where open access publishing would be favored? Granting agencies and academic institutions, which contribute to setting the standards for scientific excellence need to start being more accepting of non-traditional models of scientific publications, and judge on quality of research, and not solely on journal impact factor. National policies encouraging open access publishing are also paramount to support such a shift. Moves in that direction are underway in the UK with a policy formulated by the Research Councils, and in the European Union with the Horizon 2020 Open Research Data Pilot project, OpenAire. In the US, the Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act and the Public Access to Public Science Act aiming “to ensure public access to published materials concerning scientific research and development activities funded by Federal science agencies”, if passed, would be a step in the right direction. All else that is needed might be a little time.